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多囊卵巢综合征与怀孕:指南

多囊卵巢综合征是一种常见的疾病,影响着五分之一的女性。多囊卵巢综合征会让你更难怀孕,但如果你被告知患有多囊卵巢综合征,那么你会很高兴地知道,通过治疗,你仍然可以怀孕。

Mumsnet的总部|最后更新,2021年7月16日

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common condition that affects one in five women. PCOS can make it harder to get pregnant, but if you\u2019ve been told you have it, then you\u2019ll be pleased to know that you can still conceive with treatment.<\/p>","value":"

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common condition that affects one in five women. PCOS can make it harder to get pregnant, but if you\u2019ve been told you have it, then you\u2019ll be pleased to know that you can still conceive with treatment.<\/p>"},{"meta_id":107534,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"body","meta_value":"a:15:{i:0;s:7:\"content\";i:1;s:3:\"mpu\";i:2;s:7:\"content\";i:3;s:6:\"button\";i:4;s:7:\"content\";i:5;s:11:\"block-quote\";i:6;s:7:\"content\";i:7;s:5:\"image\";i:8;s:7:\"content\";i:9;s:11:\"block-quote\";i:10;s:7:\"content\";i:11;s:11:\"block-quote\";i:12;s:7:\"content\";i:13;s:3:\"mpu\";i:14;s:7:\"content\";}","value":["content","mpu","content","button","content","block-quote","content","image","content","block-quote","content","block-quote","content","mpu","content"]},{"meta_id":107535,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"body_0_content","meta_value":"

What is PCOS?<\/h2>

It can be hard to diagnose in the first place, but it is one of the most common causes of female infertility. It's a condition where large fluid-filled sacs can develop in your ovaries, which makes it more difficult to release an egg. They are harmless but can result in a hormonal imbalance. Having said that, the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Awareness Association (PCOSAA<\/a>) says that: \u201cDespite the name, many women [with the syndrome] do not have cysts on their ovaries.\u201d<\/p>","value":"

What is PCOS?<\/h2>

It can be hard to diagnose in the first place, but it is one of the most common causes of female infertility. It's a condition where large fluid-filled sacs can develop in your ovaries, which makes it more difficult to release an egg. They are harmless but can result in a hormonal imbalance. Having said that, the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Awareness Association (PCOSAA<\/a>) says that: \u201cDespite the name, many women [with the syndrome] do not have cysts on their ovaries.\u201d<\/p>"},{"meta_id":1091026,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_edit_last","meta_value":"5","value":"5"},{"meta_id":1091027,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_expiration-date-status","meta_value":"saved","value":"saved"},{"meta_id":1091028,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_edit_lock","meta_value":"1626460920:5","value":"1626460920:5"},{"meta_id":1091032,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_metadata_meta_title","meta_value":"field_5ff8482f6b791","value":"field_5ff8482f6b791"},{"meta_id":1091033,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_metadata_meta_description","meta_value":"field_5ff848406b792","value":"field_5ff848406b792"},{"meta_id":1091034,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"metadata_do_not_allow_indexing","meta_value":"0","value":"0"},{"meta_id":1091035,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_metadata_do_not_allow_indexing","meta_value":"field_60255d5f751c0","value":"field_60255d5f751c0"},{"meta_id":1091036,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"metadata","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":1091037,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_metadata","meta_value":"field_5fd3830066848","value":"field_5fd3830066848"},{"meta_id":1091038,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"show_sponsored_content_disclaimer","meta_value":"0","value":"0"},{"meta_id":1091039,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_show_sponsored_content_disclaimer","meta_value":"field_6070087df5508","value":"field_6070087df5508"},{"meta_id":1091040,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_standfirst","meta_value":"field_5fd38e9e96b76","value":"field_5fd38e9e96b76"},{"meta_id":1091041,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"content_author","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":1091042,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_content_author","meta_value":"field_5fd379f22a693","value":"field_5fd379f22a693"},{"meta_id":1091043,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"hero_image","meta_value":"19410","value":"19410"},{"meta_id":1091044,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_hero_image","meta_value":"field_6006f13821768","value":"field_6006f13821768"},{"meta_id":1091045,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"hide_hero_image","meta_value":"0","value":"0"},{"meta_id":1091046,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_hide_hero_image","meta_value":"field_60d1cf7781284","value":"field_60d1cf7781284"},{"meta_id":1091047,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_body_0_content","meta_value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35","value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35"},{"meta_id":1091048,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_body","meta_value":"field_5ff5e30b00b34","value":"field_5ff5e30b00b34"},{"meta_id":1091049,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"default_hub","meta_value":"8064","value":"8064"},{"meta_id":1091050,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_default_hub","meta_value":"field_5fd379f22a5f0","value":"field_5fd379f22a5f0"},{"meta_id":1091051,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"hub_data_hub_image","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":1091052,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_hub_data_hub_image","meta_value":"field_5ff46fa656d18","value":"field_5ff46fa656d18"},{"meta_id":1091053,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"hub_data_hub_title","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":1091054,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_hub_data_hub_title","meta_value":"field_5ff847a9e8dce","value":"field_5ff847a9e8dce"},{"meta_id":1091055,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"hub_data_hub_teaser_text","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":1091056,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_hub_data_hub_teaser_text","meta_value":"field_5ff8686325fd2","value":"field_5ff8686325fd2"},{"meta_id":1091057,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"hub_data","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":1091058,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_hub_data","meta_value":"field_5fd37e2cba3bd","value":"field_5fd37e2cba3bd"},{"meta_id":1091059,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"manual_related_links","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":1091060,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_manual_related_links","meta_value":"field_5fd37f6aba3c0","value":"field_5fd37f6aba3c0"},{"meta_id":1091061,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"sponsor","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":1091062,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_sponsor","meta_value":"field_5fd3805f79998","value":"field_5fd3805f79998"},{"meta_id":1091099,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"body_1_id","meta_value":"1","value":"1"},{"meta_id":1091100,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_body_1_id","meta_value":"field_605356a45ac1b","value":"field_605356a45ac1b"},{"meta_id":1091101,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"body_2_content","meta_value":"

If you have the condition, you'll produce more of the male hormone testosterone than normal, and you may not ovulate every month. You\u2019ll be able to tell if you\u2019re not ovulating regularly because your menstrual cycle will be disrupted, resulting in irregular periods \u2013 and some women with the condition don't ovulate at all. Remember though, that an irregular period is not a diagnosis in itself. It\u2019s really important to not rely on Doctor Google here and self-diagnose, but if you\u2019re having fewer than eight periods a year, you should talk to your GP.<\/p>

If the condition is suspected, your doctor might run blood tests to check your hormone levels. They may also perform a pelvic exam and, depending on the results, send you for a transvaginal ultrasound scan in order to check for enlarged ovaries.<\/p>

Do you know when you're ovulating?<\/h2>","value":"

If you have the condition, you'll produce more of the male hormone testosterone than normal, and you may not ovulate every month. You\u2019ll be able to tell if you\u2019re not ovulating regularly because your menstrual cycle will be disrupted, resulting in irregular periods \u2013 and some women with the condition don't ovulate at all. Remember though, that an irregular period is not a diagnosis in itself. It\u2019s really important to not rely on Doctor Google here and self-diagnose, but if you\u2019re having fewer than eight periods a year, you should talk to your GP.<\/p>

If the condition is suspected, your doctor might run blood tests to check your hormone levels. They may also perform a pelvic exam and, depending on the results, send you for a transvaginal ultrasound scan in order to check for enlarged ovaries.<\/p>

Do you know when you're ovulating?<\/h2>"},{"meta_id":1091102,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"_body_2_content","meta_value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35","value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35"},{"meta_id":1091109,"post_id":7379,"meta_key":"body_6_content","meta_value":"

These symptoms (particularly depression) can be caused by other issues, so if you're struggling with any of them, pop to your GP anyway and keep an open mind.<\/p>

It is also possible to have polycystic ovary syndrome that goes unnoticed because you're not showing the typical PCOS symptoms<\/a>, so if you've come off a contraceptive pill<\/a> and trying to get pregnant<\/a> for a while to no avail, then it\u2019s still worth mentioning your concerns to your GP. If you've come off the pill and are having trouble conceiving, it's natural to wonder if the pill caused your polycystic ovaries. While the condition is not actually caused by taking the pill, it is possible that the pill masked the symptoms while you were on it, meaning that you didn't realise you developed it until afterwards.<\/p>

What causes PCOS?<\/h2>

The exact cause is unknown, but it is thought to be a result of abnormal hormone levels. Many women with the condition are found to have an imbalance in the following hormones:<\/p>

看妊娠试验的妇女

PCOS是什么?

首先很难诊断,但它是女性不孕症最常见的原因之一。这种情况下,你的卵巢会发育出巨大的充满液体的囊袋,这使得排卵更加困难。它们是无害的,但会导致荷尔蒙失衡。话虽如此,多囊卵巢综合征意识协会(PCOSAA.)说:“尽管有这个名字,许多妇女(患有这种综合症)卵巢上并没有囊肿。”

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如果你有这种情况,你会比正常情况产生更多的男性荷尔蒙睾丸激素,你可能不会每个月排卵。你可以知道自己是否排卵不规律,因为你的月经周期会被打乱,导致月经不规律——有些患有这种疾病的女性根本不排卵。不过要记住,月经不规律本身并不是一种诊断。重要的是不要依赖谷歌医生,也不要自我诊断,但如果你一年来例假少于8次,你应该和你的全科医生谈谈。

如果疑似条件,您的医生可能会运行血液测试以检查您的激素水平。它们还可以进行骨盆考试,并根据结果,向您发送TransVaginal超声扫描以检查放大的卵形。

你知道什么时候你排卵?

多囊卵巢综合征的症状

PCOSAA说:“由于不排卵,PCOS的女性通常具有不规则或错过的时期。虽然有些女性可能在卵巢上发育囊肿,但很多女性都没有。“

其他症状包括:

  • 身体上多余的毛发生长
  • 你头上的脱发
  • 粉刺
  • 体重增加和减肥困难
  • 头发稀疏(你头上,唉)
  • 盆腔痛
  • 腹股沟,颈部和腋窝中的皮肤黑暗斑块(黑棘皮症
  • 抑郁症
  • 情绪波动
我怀孕时,医生给我开了更高剂量的二甲双胍,因为有流产的风险。增加的风险非常低。最大的挑战是怀孕——所以我不会恐慌。万博体育在线登入

这些症状(特别是抑郁症)可能是由其他问题引起的,所以如果您与任何人挣扎,无论如何都会流行到您的GP并保持开放的心态。

也有可能具有多囊卵巢综合征,因为你没有表现出来典型的多囊卵巢综合征的症状,所以如果你停止服用避孕药试图怀孕一段时间没用,那么它仍然值得一提到你对你的GP的担忧。如果你已经避开了药丸,并且怀有麻烦,很自然地想知道药丸是否导致你的多囊卵子。虽然该病症实际上并不是通过服用避孕药而导致的,但在您的情况下,可能会掩盖症状,这意味着您没有意识到您在之后开发了它。

导致PCOS的原因是什么?

确切的原因是未知的,但被认为是激素水平异常的结果。许多具有该病症的妇女在以下激素中具有不平衡:

  • 睾酮——一种通常被认为是男性荷尔蒙的激素,尽管所有女性通常都会产生少量的这种激素。患有这种综合症的女性通常会有异常高的睾丸激素水平
  • Luteinising激素(LH)-这刺激排卵,但如果水平过高,可能会对卵巢产生异常的影响,多囊卵巢的女性通常就是这种情况
  • 催乳激素- 有些女性已经升高了这种激素的水平,这刺激了乳腺腺体在怀孕中产生牛奶

此外,它还会导致性激素结合球蛋白(SHBG)水平降低,SHBG是血液中的一种蛋白质,与睾酮结合并降低其作用。

这些激素变化发生的确切原因尚不清楚。据认为,问题可能始于卵巢本身,或产生这些激素的其他腺体,或大脑中控制激素产生的部分。

激素水平异常也可以由胰岛素抵抗引起。胰岛素是一种调节血糖的激素。如果你对胰岛素有抵抗力,那么你的身体就必须产生更多的胰岛素来弥补。高水平的胰岛素会导致更多的睾酮产生,我们知道这会导致多囊卵巢综合征。此外,高胰岛素水平会导致体重增加,这反过来会使症状更糟——身体上的多余脂肪意味着更多的胰岛素产生。

pcos遗传?

它有时可以在家庭中运行。如果你的母亲,妹妹,阿姨或另一个女性相对具有多囊卵巢,那么你可能会有增加的发展机会。

虽然可能有遗传联系,但与这种疾病有关的特定基因尚未被确定。

多囊卵巢和怀孕

诊断并不意味着在自然怀孕的最终结束 - 如果有的话,它只是成为父母的旅程的开始。成千上万的妇女每天送到世界各地的健康婴儿。构想可能需要一点时间 - 但它肯定会发生。

PCOSAA说:“虽然它是生育问题的主要原因,但诊断并不意味着您是不孕的。它是可治疗的,许多条件的女性都自然地怀孕或在生育治疗的帮助下。“

多囊卵巢综合征的治疗

它有很多治疗方案。虽然这种情况本身没有治愈的方法,但它的症状可以被控制,以提高你的生育能力,让你不需要更复杂的怀孕生育治疗

我的医生可以做什么?

你的医生可以为你确定最好的治疗方案,但你可能会被推荐以下任何一种治疗方法。如果长期使用口服避孕药,还可以提供一些预防子宫内膜癌的保护,你的医生将会建议以下哪种治疗方法最适合你:

  • 克罗米芬——一种刺激排卵的药物。它刺激卵子释放的成功通常会通过超声波扫描来监测。
  • 二甲双胍——可以用来控制你的胰岛素水平。它通常用于治疗二型糖尿病,但也可用于治疗多囊卵巢综合征相关的胰岛素抵抗。PCOSAA指出:“许多被诊断为多囊卵巢综合征的女性通常会自动服用二甲双胍。然而,重要的是要有一个服用二甲双胍的理由,而不是仅仅因为你的诊断而服用它。”所以,有必要和你的医生确认一下,这是不是对你来说正确的治疗方法。
  • Provera和其他激素治疗-可以开处方来刺激你的月经。
  • Letrozole和Tamoxifen - 这些是两种乳腺癌药物,如果医生认为胜过任何副作用或风险,那么也可以使用“偏离标签”。在试图怀孕之前,可以采取它们治疗条件。当你服用时,使用非激素避孕药,因为Tamoxifen可以伤害你的宝宝,所以你真的必须遵循你的医生的建议 - 如果你确实怀孕,请停止立即接受它,看看你的GP。
  • 如果口服药物没有工作,促毒素注射液 - 帮助刺激卵巢以产生卵子。但是,他们可以造成多重怀孕由于过度刺激的风险,这可能看起来是好消息,但也可能超出你的预期。
  • 腹腔镜卵巢钻孔——这是一种外科手术,但远没有听起来那么糟糕。外科医生会在你的胃里开一个小口,将一根细管子插入你的卵巢,并移除一些受影响的组织。
一碗健康食品

改变生活方式,提高生育能力

生活方式的小改变可以在提高生育能力方面发挥很大作用,包括:

  • 减肥——超重会对你的生育能力产生巨大的影响。损失5%就能极大地提高你的机会,根据英国国家医疗服务体系
  • 定期锻炼——加上健康的饮食,保持活跃有助于降低血糖水平,降低患二型糖尿病的几率
  • 每天吃五份水果和蔬菜健康,平衡的饮食这对你的生育能力有好处,因为多囊卵巢的女性更容易患心脏病和高胆固醇,它对你的整体健康也很重要
  • 避免咖啡因和酒精(是的,'frad So)

而且,你也会感觉好些试图怀孕的压力一旦你吃了甘蓝,你也可以吃。(我们更喜欢甜甜圈,但这都是医嘱。)

当谈到怀孕的时候,你觉得自己受到了不公平的待遇,这是完全可以理解的,尤其是当似乎每个人都和她的姐姐怀孕了。多囊卵巢综合征对每个女性的影响各不相同,但别担心,你不是一个人。你可以和那些在Mumsnet网站上也患有该疾病的朋友们聊天怀孕论坛,或有慈善机构包括真实性在那里你也可以找到支持。

我成功怀孕的结果现在是一天大了,睡在我的胸前。我的怀孕过程很轻松,没有任何问题,生产过程也很轻松。

多囊卵巢综合征饮食-我应该吃什么或避免什么来改善我的生育能力?

健康、均衡的饮食被证明可以提高生育能力。有些食物你应该多吃一些,有些食物你应该尽量限制或避免。目的:

  • 少吃肉-减少肉类摄入量,当你吃的时候,尽量吃质量好的有机肉类。吃太多肉会使雌激素水平失衡恶化
  • 多吃植物性蛋白质- 尝试你摄入的豆类,坚果,豆类和其他非肉类蛋白质
  • 在饮食中加入欧米茄3脂肪——它们已经被证明能降低睾丸激素水平
  • 吃一点全脂乳制品-虽然你应该避免摄入过多的奶制品,但少量全脂、优质的奶制品实际上是有益的
  • 需要补充-缺乏某些维生素和矿物质会对受孕产生负面影响。你的医生会建议你服用哪些补品
他们将在早期扫描中建议检查一切是应该的,然后将其视为常规怀孕。

如何在怀孕期间保持健康

如果你不顾诊断成功怀孕,那么你肯定已经度过了最棘手的阶段——但不幸的是,你还没有完全脱离险境。

坏消息是,你可能会比没有综合症的女性戳戳,又繁多,但好消息是,你可能会很快看到宝宝,就像早些时候扫描建议检查一下你是否有一个健康的怀孕,一切都很顺利。

患有多囊卵巢的妇女怀孕和分娩并发症的风险更高。有更高的风险流产在前三个月预先普利坦斯稍后的。您还应该定期检查您的血糖,因为您有更高的发展风险妊娠期糖尿病(如果您还没有类型的糖尿病,作为条件的一部分)。它还可以让您提高妊娠高血压的风险,并且婴儿出生过早。

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如果我怀孕了,一定要剖腹产吗?

如果你患有多囊卵巢综合征,那么你更有可能需要剖腹产——但这只是因为你患并发症的风险增加了。这种情况本身并不意味着你需要一个——如果你选择,你仍然可以通过阴道分娩。当然,如果你决定要剖腹产,那也没关系。

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