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儿童发展的日历

我们的发展日历记录了您的孩子从出生到五岁的进步。它将帮助你了解你的孩子理解什么,并回答诸如“我的新生儿能看多远?”以及“我蹒跚学步的孩子什么时候能理解别人的感受?”

想要定期更新你的孩子的发展直接到你的收件箱?告诉我们他们现在处于什么阶段,并订阅我们的通讯

Mumsnet总部|最后更新日期:2021年7月14日

Our developmental calendar charts your child's progress from birth to five years old. It will help you to understand what your child understands and answer questions like \u201cHow far can my newborn see?\u201d and \u201cWhen does my toddler understand the concept of other people's feelings?\u201d<\/p>

Want regular updates on your child's development straight to your inbox? Tell us what stage they're at and sign up to our newsletter<\/a><\/p>","value":"

Our developmental calendar charts your child's progress from birth to five years old. It will help you to understand what your child understands and answer questions like \u201cHow far can my newborn see?\u201d and \u201cWhen does my toddler understand the concept of other people's feelings?\u201d<\/p>

Want regular updates on your child's development straight to your inbox? Tell us what stage they're at and sign up to our newsletter<\/a><\/p>"},{"meta_id":106289,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"body","meta_value":"a:5:{i:0;s:7:\"content\";i:1;s:3:\"mpu\";i:2;s:7:\"content\";i:3;s:3:\"mpu\";i:4;s:7:\"content\";}","value":["content","mpu","content","mpu","content"]},{"meta_id":106290,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"body_0_content","meta_value":"

There are few things in life more gripping than your child's development. From their earliest moments, we parents obsess about what our children are thinking, seeing, hearing and feeling, marking the milestones with a combination of fascination, uncertainty and delight. After all, what parent hasn't agonised over whether an early smile was a sign of genuine contentment or the result of some digestive process?<\/p>","value":"

There are few things in life more gripping than your child's development. From their earliest moments, we parents obsess about what our children are thinking, seeing, hearing and feeling, marking the milestones with a combination of fascination, uncertainty and delight. After all, what parent hasn't agonised over whether an early smile was a sign of genuine contentment or the result of some digestive process?<\/p>"},{"meta_id":704743,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_edit_lock","meta_value":"1626277796:10","value":"1626277796:10"},{"meta_id":781061,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_edit_last","meta_value":"10","value":"10"},{"meta_id":781062,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_expiration-date-status","meta_value":"saved","value":"saved"},{"meta_id":782222,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_metadata_meta_title","meta_value":"field_5ff8482f6b791","value":"field_5ff8482f6b791"},{"meta_id":782223,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_metadata_meta_description","meta_value":"field_5ff848406b792","value":"field_5ff848406b792"},{"meta_id":782224,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"metadata_do_not_allow_indexing","meta_value":"0","value":"0"},{"meta_id":782225,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_metadata_do_not_allow_indexing","meta_value":"field_60255d5f751c0","value":"field_60255d5f751c0"},{"meta_id":782226,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"metadata","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":782227,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_metadata","meta_value":"field_5fd3830066848","value":"field_5fd3830066848"},{"meta_id":782228,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"show_sponsored_content_disclaimer","meta_value":"0","value":"0"},{"meta_id":782229,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_show_sponsored_content_disclaimer","meta_value":"field_6070087df5508","value":"field_6070087df5508"},{"meta_id":782230,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_body_0_content","meta_value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35","value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35"},{"meta_id":782231,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"body_1_id","meta_value":"1","value":"1"},{"meta_id":782232,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_body_1_id","meta_value":"field_605356a45ac1b","value":"field_605356a45ac1b"},{"meta_id":782233,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"body_2_content","meta_value":"

Baby milestones: Here's what to expect at each stage of your child's development:<\/h2>

Your child at three weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at four weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at six weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at seven weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at eight weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at nine weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 10 weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 11 weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 12 weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at two months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at three months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at four months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at five months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at six months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at seven months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at eight months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at nine months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 10 months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 11 months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 12 months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 18 months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 2 years<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 2-and-a-half years<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 3 years<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 4 years<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 5 years<\/a><\/p>

Child development tips from an expert<\/h2>

Dr Robert Winston, presenter of a number of BBC documentaries including Child of our time, Super Human and the award-winning 'Human Body', joined us for a webchat<\/a> on all things child development, and how you can help your child in their first few years. Here are his answers to your questions:<\/p>

Q: Do you think learning a second language from a young age is beneficial and aids children in their longer-term development? Also, do you think learning a musical instrument from a young age helps them develop further in the long term?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Both learning languages and learning musical instruments are very beneficial in all sorts of ways. I would encourage children \u2013 if they show an interest \u2013 to do both.<\/p>

Q: Do you think a traumatic birth can shape a child's personality?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> There really is very little evidence that a traumatic birth has a long-standing effect on personality.<\/p>

Q: What are the societal effects of risk-averse parenting, and what effects do you envisage for the generation born to parents who had risk-minimised upbringings?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> I think our society is ludicrous in its attitude towards risk. Children have to learn how to keep themselves safe \u2013 to some extent \u2013 needing, of course, parental guidance.<\/p>

Q: What do you think parents can do to ensure raising well-rounded children?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> We can never absolutely ensure a well-rounded child, but encouraging questions, listening, explaining things at every opportunity, and saying you don't know when you don't know will always be helpful.<\/p>

Q: Does watching TV for an hour a day have a negative effect on a child's brain development? If a young child never watched TV would they be more advanced than one who watched TV a little bit each day or one who watched TV constantly?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> I would have thought that watching TV for an hour a day is more valuable than staring through a dining room window, but I would add that, in general, prolonged TV-watching without parental supervision is not a good idea for any child of a young age.<\/p>

Q: How much impact do you think stress in pregnancy has?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> There is some evidence that stress in early pregnancy \u2013 around 20 \u2013 26 weeks \u2013 may be associated with some difficulties as some children grow up. But I suspect that a good postnatal environment helps to ensure that these effects are not serious in most cases.<\/p>

Q: What is your view of controlled crying? And what developmental benefits (if any) do babies get from breastfeeding?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> There is evidence that babies left to cry experience stress and have raised cortisol levels, even after their crying ceases. Breastfeeding provides a good balance of fats that are important for brain development. There are emotional benefits to the close act of breastfeeding a baby, and it is possible to feed your baby with a bottle in a similar way \u2013 with eye contact, skin to skin contact, parent feeding etc.<\/p>

Q: I would be very interested in your view on social skills development in children. My DS is an only child and has grown up in quite an adult world pre-school. I know that his social skills are behind his intellectual development. Generally, do social skills catch up once at school?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> We are social animals and social skills are an important part of development. It's very important that children get to spend time with other children as they learn to cope with frustration, sharing, making friends and of course having fun with peers. School helps with all these social skills but playing with cousins, children on your street and parties all help. Daydreaming and concentrating are both important parts of being a child and an adult. Different children will concentrate and daydream in different situations, some children will spend a long time concentrating on a jigsaw but might not concentrate on a physical task. Learning to concentrate and having the freedom to daydream are both important to development and children generally get the opportunity for both.<\/p>

Q: Can you teach a child happiness? If you continually model what it means to be happy, and encourage them to laugh, will their brain wire itself in favour of an optimistic outlook to life as they grow up?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Children who develop a strong and loving attachment with a warm, patient and consistent parent are more likely to be happy and resilient. Early nurture and bonding have profound and long-term effects on a child's happiness and optimism.<\/p>

Q: Do you think parents are supported enough to, in turn, support their child's development now that health visitor support seems scarce and early years provision such as Sure Start is reduced?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Supporting children and their parents in those first few years is a vital moral duty that we have as a nation. One of the reasons I support and endorse the Essential Baby Care Guides is that they have been designed to help new and expectant parents to love, nurture and care for their babies.<\/p>

We've been thrilled by the response from the expert organisations we've worked with, as well as the children's centres, the Department of Health and healthcare professionals. There is a strong will to try and support parents and babies in the community. However, it is frustrating that as a rich nation we still see so much need for support of babies and their parents in our society.<\/p>

Q: I wonder what you think about the impact of so-called 'helicopter' parenting on children?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Children need to be kept safe but micromanaging their every utterance, interaction and decision is not a good idea. Within a safe environment, children need to be thwarted by peers, climb trees and learn to negotiate and get on with their friends.<\/p>

Q: Are some parenting styles better for your baby's brain development than others?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> As long as the baby is experiencing love, warmth, plenty of skin to skin contact, and common sense when it comes to basic care issues such as feeding and sleep, then you will be doing the best you can as a parent. Remember to talk a lot to your baby, and give them time to gurgle a response.<\/p>

Q: Is intelligence fixed by genetics or malleable? How much difference does parenting\/effort by the child actually make to academic achievement?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Both are important. Parenting is extremely important in academic achievement.<\/p>

A word about our development calendar<\/h2>

Please remember, not all babies and children develop at the same time and in the same way, so our development calendar may not always match your child. Development milestones vary widely. It's not uncommon to have isolated pockets of late development, such as late walkers and talkers, and some babies are slower to develop because they were born prematurely or because they're twins (or triplets). But a minority of babies and children do have delays in development that may need specialist help. If you are at all concerned, go and see your GP. No health professional should ever trivialise a worry you have about your child.<\/p>","value":"

Baby milestones: Here's what to expect at each stage of your child's development:<\/h2>

Your child at three weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at four weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at six weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at seven weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at eight weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at nine weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 10 weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 11 weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 12 weeks<\/a><\/p>

Your child at two months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at three months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at four months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at five months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at six months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at seven months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at eight months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at nine months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 10 months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 11 months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 12 months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 18 months<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 2 years<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 2-and-a-half years<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 3 years<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 4 years<\/a><\/p>

Your child at 5 years<\/a><\/p>

Child development tips from an expert<\/h2>

Dr Robert Winston, presenter of a number of BBC documentaries including Child of our time, Super Human and the award-winning 'Human Body', joined us for a webchat<\/a> on all things child development, and how you can help your child in their first few years. Here are his answers to your questions:<\/p>

Q: Do you think learning a second language from a young age is beneficial and aids children in their longer-term development? Also, do you think learning a musical instrument from a young age helps them develop further in the long term?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Both learning languages and learning musical instruments are very beneficial in all sorts of ways. I would encourage children \u2013 if they show an interest \u2013 to do both.<\/p>

Q: Do you think a traumatic birth can shape a child's personality?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> There really is very little evidence that a traumatic birth has a long-standing effect on personality.<\/p>

Q: What are the societal effects of risk-averse parenting, and what effects do you envisage for the generation born to parents who had risk-minimised upbringings?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> I think our society is ludicrous in its attitude towards risk. Children have to learn how to keep themselves safe \u2013 to some extent \u2013 needing, of course, parental guidance.<\/p>

Q: What do you think parents can do to ensure raising well-rounded children?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> We can never absolutely ensure a well-rounded child, but encouraging questions, listening, explaining things at every opportunity, and saying you don't know when you don't know will always be helpful.<\/p>

Q: Does watching TV for an hour a day have a negative effect on a child's brain development? If a young child never watched TV would they be more advanced than one who watched TV a little bit each day or one who watched TV constantly?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> I would have thought that watching TV for an hour a day is more valuable than staring through a dining room window, but I would add that, in general, prolonged TV-watching without parental supervision is not a good idea for any child of a young age.<\/p>

Q: How much impact do you think stress in pregnancy has?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> There is some evidence that stress in early pregnancy \u2013 around 20 \u2013 26 weeks \u2013 may be associated with some difficulties as some children grow up. But I suspect that a good postnatal environment helps to ensure that these effects are not serious in most cases.<\/p>

Q: What is your view of controlled crying? And what developmental benefits (if any) do babies get from breastfeeding?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> There is evidence that babies left to cry experience stress and have raised cortisol levels, even after their crying ceases. Breastfeeding provides a good balance of fats that are important for brain development. There are emotional benefits to the close act of breastfeeding a baby, and it is possible to feed your baby with a bottle in a similar way \u2013 with eye contact, skin to skin contact, parent feeding etc.<\/p>

Q: I would be very interested in your view on social skills development in children. My DS is an only child and has grown up in quite an adult world pre-school. I know that his social skills are behind his intellectual development. Generally, do social skills catch up once at school?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> We are social animals and social skills are an important part of development. It's very important that children get to spend time with other children as they learn to cope with frustration, sharing, making friends and of course having fun with peers. School helps with all these social skills but playing with cousins, children on your street and parties all help. Daydreaming and concentrating are both important parts of being a child and an adult. Different children will concentrate and daydream in different situations, some children will spend a long time concentrating on a jigsaw but might not concentrate on a physical task. Learning to concentrate and having the freedom to daydream are both important to development and children generally get the opportunity for both.<\/p>

Q: Can you teach a child happiness? If you continually model what it means to be happy, and encourage them to laugh, will their brain wire itself in favour of an optimistic outlook to life as they grow up?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Children who develop a strong and loving attachment with a warm, patient and consistent parent are more likely to be happy and resilient. Early nurture and bonding have profound and long-term effects on a child's happiness and optimism.<\/p>

Q: Do you think parents are supported enough to, in turn, support their child's development now that health visitor support seems scarce and early years provision such as Sure Start is reduced?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Supporting children and their parents in those first few years is a vital moral duty that we have as a nation. One of the reasons I support and endorse the Essential Baby Care Guides is that they have been designed to help new and expectant parents to love, nurture and care for their babies.<\/p>

We've been thrilled by the response from the expert organisations we've worked with, as well as the children's centres, the Department of Health and healthcare professionals. There is a strong will to try and support parents and babies in the community. However, it is frustrating that as a rich nation we still see so much need for support of babies and their parents in our society.<\/p>

Q: I wonder what you think about the impact of so-called 'helicopter' parenting on children?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Children need to be kept safe but micromanaging their every utterance, interaction and decision is not a good idea. Within a safe environment, children need to be thwarted by peers, climb trees and learn to negotiate and get on with their friends.<\/p>

Q: Are some parenting styles better for your baby's brain development than others?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> As long as the baby is experiencing love, warmth, plenty of skin to skin contact, and common sense when it comes to basic care issues such as feeding and sleep, then you will be doing the best you can as a parent. Remember to talk a lot to your baby, and give them time to gurgle a response.<\/p>

Q: Is intelligence fixed by genetics or malleable? How much difference does parenting\/effort by the child actually make to academic achievement?<\/h3>

A:<\/strong> Both are important. Parenting is extremely important in academic achievement.<\/p>

A word about our development calendar<\/h2>

Please remember, not all babies and children develop at the same time and in the same way, so our development calendar may not always match your child. Development milestones vary widely. It's not uncommon to have isolated pockets of late development, such as late walkers and talkers, and some babies are slower to develop because they were born prematurely or because they're twins (or triplets). But a minority of babies and children do have delays in development that may need specialist help. If you are at all concerned, go and see your GP. No health professional should ever trivialise a worry you have about your child.<\/p>"},{"meta_id":782234,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_body_2_content","meta_value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35","value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35"},{"meta_id":782241,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_body","meta_value":"field_5ff5e30b00b34","value":"field_5ff5e30b00b34"},{"meta_id":782242,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"content_author","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":782243,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_content_author","meta_value":"field_5fd379f22a693","value":"field_5fd379f22a693"},{"meta_id":782244,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_standfirst","meta_value":"field_5fd38e9e96b76","value":"field_5fd38e9e96b76"},{"meta_id":782245,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"hero_image","meta_value":"16339","value":"16339"},{"meta_id":782246,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_hero_image","meta_value":"field_6006f13821768","value":"field_6006f13821768"},{"meta_id":782247,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"default_hub","meta_value":"8079","value":"8079"},{"meta_id":782248,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_default_hub","meta_value":"field_5fd379f22a5f0","value":"field_5fd379f22a5f0"},{"meta_id":782249,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"hub_data_hub_image","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":782250,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_hub_data_hub_image","meta_value":"field_5ff46fa656d18","value":"field_5ff46fa656d18"},{"meta_id":782251,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"hub_data_hub_title","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":782252,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_hub_data_hub_title","meta_value":"field_5ff847a9e8dce","value":"field_5ff847a9e8dce"},{"meta_id":782253,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"hub_data_hub_teaser_text","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":782254,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_hub_data_hub_teaser_text","meta_value":"field_5ff8686325fd2","value":"field_5ff8686325fd2"},{"meta_id":782255,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"hub_data","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":782256,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_hub_data","meta_value":"field_5fd37e2cba3bd","value":"field_5fd37e2cba3bd"},{"meta_id":782257,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"manual_related_links","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":782258,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_manual_related_links","meta_value":"field_5fd37f6aba3c0","value":"field_5fd37f6aba3c0"},{"meta_id":782259,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"sponsor","meta_value":"","value":""},{"meta_id":782260,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_sponsor","meta_value":"field_5fd3805f79998","value":"field_5fd3805f79998"},{"meta_id":790990,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_oembed_1c59ca8c22c2152a5feba584c93eeafe","meta_value":"{{unknown}}","value":"{{unknown}}"},{"meta_id":791317,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"body_4_content","meta_value":"

Professor Amanda Kirby, an expert in child development, with over 25 years' specialist experience under her belt says: \u201cIt is always useful to remember that development can vary from child to child. For most developmental tasks, there is no average but a range of milestone times.\u201d<\/p>

If your child has special needs, you can get advice from other parents in our special needs Talk boards<\/a>.\u00a0<\/p>","value":"

Professor Amanda Kirby, an expert in child development, with over 25 years' specialist experience under her belt says: \u201cIt is always useful to remember that development can vary from child to child. For most developmental tasks, there is no average but a range of milestone times.\u201d<\/p>

If your child has special needs, you can get advice from other parents in our special needs Talk boards<\/a>.\u00a0<\/p>"},{"meta_id":791318,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_body_4_content","meta_value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35","value":"field_5ff5e32e00b35"},{"meta_id":1176854,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"hide_hero_image","meta_value":"0","value":"0"},{"meta_id":1176855,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_hide_hero_image","meta_value":"field_60d1cf7781284","value":"field_60d1cf7781284"},{"meta_id":1262320,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"body_3_id","meta_value":"2","value":"2"},{"meta_id":1262321,"post_id":7127,"meta_key":"_body_3_id","meta_value":"field_605356a45ac1b","value":"field_605356a45ac1b"}],"taxonomies":[{"term_taxonomy_id":58,"term_id":58,"taxonomy":"category","description":"","parent":0,"count":141,"pivot":{"object_id":7127,"term_taxonomy_id":58},"term":{"term_id":58,"name":"Parenting","slug":"parenting","term_group":0}},{"term_taxonomy_id":67,"term_id":67,"taxonomy":"category","description":"","parent":58,"count":177,"pivot":{"object_id":7127,"term_taxonomy_id":67},"term":{"term_id":67,"name":"Babies","slug":"babies","term_group":0}},{"term_taxonomy_id":68,"term_id":68,"taxonomy":"category","description":"","parent":58,"count":130,"pivot":{"object_id":7127,"term_taxonomy_id":68},"term":{"term_id":68,"name":"Children","slug":"children","term_group":0}}],"thumbnail":null}">

新生儿脸部特写

生活中很少有比孩子的成长更吸引人的事情了。从孩子出生的那一刻起,我们这些做父母的就对孩子的所思、所见所闻和所感着迷,带着痴迷、不确定和欣喜的心情来标记每一个里程碑。毕竟,有哪位父母不曾苦恼过,早期的微笑是真正的满足的标志,还是某种消化过程的结果?

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婴儿的里程碑:以下是在你的孩子成长的每个阶段应该预料到的事情:

你的孩子三周大

你的孩子四周大了

你的孩子六周大

你的孩子七周大

8周大的孩子

你的孩子九周大

10周大的孩子

11周的孩子

你的孩子12周时

你两个月大的孩子

你三个月大的孩子

你的孩子四个月大

5个月大的孩子

你的孩子六个月大

7个月大的孩子

8个月大的孩子

9个月大的孩子

10个月大的孩子

11个月大的孩子

12个月大的孩子

18个月大的孩子

你的孩子两岁的时候

你2岁半的孩子

3岁的孩子

你的孩子4岁时

5岁的孩子

来自专家的儿童发展建议

罗伯特·温斯顿博士,BBC纪录片的主持人,包括《我们时代的孩子》、《超人》和获奖的《人体》聊天关于孩子发展的所有事情,以及你如何在孩子最初几年帮助他们。以下是他对你的问题的回答:

问:你认为从小学习第二语言对孩子的长期发展有益吗?另外,你认为从小学习一种乐器能帮助他们长远发展吗?

答:学习语言和学习乐器在各个方面都是非常有益的。我会鼓励孩子们——如果他们有兴趣的话——两者兼而有之。

问:你认为创伤性分娩会塑造孩子的性格吗?

答:很少有证据表明创伤性出生对人格有长期影响。

问:规避风险的育儿方式会产生什么社会影响?你认为对父母的育儿方式风险最小的那一代人会产生什么影响?

答:我认为我们的社会对待风险的态度是可笑的。孩子们必须学会如何保证自己的安全——在某种程度上——当然,需要父母的指导。

问:你认为父母可以做些什么来确保培养出全面发展的孩子?

答:我们永远不能绝对保证一个全面发展的孩子,但鼓励提问,倾听,在每一个机会解释事情,在你不知道的时候说你不知道,这总是有帮助的。

问:每天看一小时电视对孩子的大脑发育有负面影响吗?如果一个小孩从不看电视,他会比每天看一点点电视或经常看电视的孩子更先进吗?

答:我本以为每天看一小时电视比盯着餐厅的窗户看更有价值,但我想补充的是,总的来说,在没有父母监督的情况下长时间看电视对任何年幼的孩子都不是一个好主意。

问:你认为怀孕期间的压力有多大影响?

答:有证据表明,怀孕早期(大约20 - 26周)的压力可能与一些孩子成长过程中的一些困难有关。但我怀疑,在大多数情况下,良好的产后环境有助于确保这些影响不严重。

问:你如何看待控制哭泣?婴儿从母乳喂养中获得了什么发育益处(如果有的话)?

答:有证据表明,即使在婴儿停止哭闹后,他们也会经历压力并提高皮质醇水平。母乳喂养提供了对大脑发育很重要的脂肪的良好平衡。母乳喂养婴儿的亲密行为有情感上的好处,用奶瓶以类似的方式喂养婴儿也是可能的——眼睛接触、皮肤接触、父母喂养等。

问:我对你对儿童社交能力发展的看法很感兴趣。我的DS是一个独生子,在一个相当成人的世界的幼儿园里长大。我知道他的社交能力落后于他的智力发展。一般来说,在学校的社交技能会有所提高吗?

答:我们是社会动物,社会技能是发展的重要组成部分。让孩子们花时间和其他孩子在一起是非常重要的,因为他们学会了应对挫折、分享、交朋友,当然还有和同龄人一起玩。学校有助于培养这些社交技能,但和表亲、在街上玩耍的孩子和派对都有帮助。白日梦和专注都是孩子和成人的重要组成部分。不同的孩子会在不同的情况下集中注意力和做白日梦,有些孩子会花很长时间专注于拼图,但可能不会专注于体育任务。学习集中注意力和自由做白日梦对发展都很重要,孩子们通常都有机会做到这两点。

问:你能教孩子幸福吗?如果你不断模仿快乐意味着什么,并鼓励他们笑,他们的大脑会在他们长大后倾向于乐观的生活态度吗?

答:与温暖、耐心和一致的父母建立一种强烈的爱的依恋关系的孩子更有可能变得快乐和有弹性。早期的养育和亲密关系对孩子的幸福和乐观有深远而长期的影响。

问:您认为父母是否得到了足够的支持,从而支持他们的孩子的发展,因为健康访客支持似乎很少,而且早期提供的服务(如Sure Start)减少了?

答:在最初的几年里抚养孩子和他们的父母是我们国家的一项重要的道德责任。我支持和支持《基本婴儿护理指南》的原因之一是,它们旨在帮助新父母和准父母爱、养育和照顾他们的孩子。

与我们合作的专家组织以及儿童中心、卫生部和医疗保健专业人士的反应令我们激动不已。社区中有一种强烈的意愿去努力支持父母和婴儿。然而,令人沮丧的是,作为一个富裕的国家,我们仍然看到在我们的社会中如此需要对婴儿及其父母的支持。

问:我想知道你如何看待所谓的“直升机式”教育对孩子的影响?

答:孩子们需要保证安全,但事无大细地管理他们的每一个话语、互动和决定不是一个好主意。在一个安全的环境中,孩子们需要被同伴阻碍,爬树,学习与朋友谈判和相处。

问:某些育儿方式是否比其他方式更有利于宝宝的大脑发育?

答:只要宝宝感受到爱、温暖、大量的皮肤接触,以及在诸如喂养和睡眠等基本护理问题上的常识,那么作为父母,你将尽你所能做到最好。记得和宝宝多说话,给他们时间咕噜咕噜地回答。

问:智力是由遗传决定的还是可塑的?父母的教育/孩子的努力对孩子的学业成就有多大的影响?

答:两者都是重要的。教育对学业成就至关重要。

简单说一下我们的发展日程

请记住,不是所有的婴儿和儿童都在同一时间以同一种方式发育,所以我们的发育日历可能并不总是与您的孩子相匹配。开发里程碑差异很大。单独的发育较晚的婴儿并不少见,比如走路和说话较晚的婴儿,有些婴儿发育较慢是因为他们早产或因为他们是双胞胎(或三胞胎)。但有少数婴儿和儿童发育迟缓,可能需要专家的帮助。如果你有任何担心,去看你的家庭医生。任何健康专家都不应该忽视你对孩子的担忧。

广告

儿童发展专家阿曼达·柯比教授拥有超过25年的专家经验,她说:“要记住,每个孩子的发展都是不同的,这一点总是有用的。对于大多数发育任务来说,没有平均水平,只有一个里程碑时间范围。”

如果你的孩子有特殊需要,你可以从其他父母那里得到建议我们的特殊需求谈话板

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